History of Climate Change Negotiations

The most of the important event occurred in the course of negotiation on Climate Change are mention below:

1972       - United Nations Conference on Human Environment in stockholon i.e. 1st UN Environment Conference (UNEP). The United Environment Programme is formed as a result here.

1975       - First talk of Global Warming: US scientist Wallace  Broceker put the term "Global Warming" into the public domain in his scientific paper climate change.

1979       - 1st World Climate Conference (WCC) takes place.

1988       - World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and UN Environment Programme (UNEP) establish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

1990       - The IPCC release the 1st assessment report saying "emissions resulting from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases leading to calls by IPCC and the second World Climate Conference for a global treaty.
It has concluded that temperature have risen by 0.3 – 0.6 Degree Centigrade over the last century because of human activity.

Dec 11, 1999- The UN General Assembly establishes the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) for Framework Convention on Climate Change.

1992       - Rio de Earth Summit in Brazil.
The text of the UNFCCC is adopted at the United Nation Headquarters in New York.

Jan 1992- UNFCCC open for signature at Rio Earth Summit. It was major United Nations Conference held in Rio de Janerio from 3 to 14 June 1992.
Agreement between Parties for curbing global warming within 2 degree centigrade


1994       - The UNFCCC spawned two years earlier in Rio, enters into force in March 1994. Countries which sign the treaty are known as  Parties. With 196 parties, the UNFCCC has near universal membership. Parties meet annually at the Conference of the Parties (COP) to negotiate multilateral response to climate change.

1995       - First Conference of Parties (COP 1) had in Berlin Germany. At COP 1 Parties agreed that commitments in the convention were inadequate for meeting Convention objectives.
- IPCC release second assessment report and suggest evidence of "discernible human influence" on the earth's climate.

1996       - In July 1996 Conference of Parties II was held in Geneva. UNFCCC Secretariat is setup to support action under the convention.

1997       - December 1947, Kyoto Protocol Adapted. The third Conference of Parties (COP 3) achieves a historical milestone with adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, the world first greenhouse gas emissions reduction treaty. The world main goal of the Kyoto Protocol is to control the emissions of the human emitted GHGs in ways that reflects underlying national differences in GHGs emissions wealth and capacity to make the reductions. The treaty follows the main principles common but differentiated responsibilities.

1998       - COP 4 was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parties adopted the Buenos Aires plan of Action allowing a two year period to develop mechanisms for implementing the Kyoto protocol.

1999       - COP 5 was held in Bann, Germany. According to the UNFCCC, Parties continued                             negotiation efforts with a focus on the adoption of the guidelines for the preparation of                         national communication by (developed) countries capacity building, transfer of technology                 and flexible mechanism.

2000       - COP 6 – Part I was held in Hague, Netherland negotiations faltered and parties agreed to meet again.

COP 6 – Part II was held in Bann, Germany. Consensus was reached on what called the Bann Agreement.

2001       - COP 7 was held in Marrakesh Noroco. This would formalize agreement on operational                     rules for International Emissions Trading. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and                 Joint Implementation along with a compliance regime and accounting procedures.

2001       - COP 8 was held in Delhi, India. Parties adopted the Delhi Ministerial Declaration that among other things called for developed countries to transfer technology to developing counties.

2003       - COP 9 was held in Milan, Italy. New emission reporting guidelines based on IPCC recommendations were adopted.

2004       - COP 10 was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

2005       - Kyoto Protocol came in force. COP 11/CMP 1 were held in Montreal Canada.

2006       - COP 12/CMP 2 were held in Nairobi, Kenya. Financial mechanisms were reviewed and further decisions were made about the special climate change fund. Clean Development Mechanism opens in January 2006.

2007       - COP 13/CMP 3 were held in Bali, COP parties agreed to a Bali action plan to negotiate GHGs mitigation actions after the Kyoto protocol expires in 2012.

2008       - COP 14/CMP 4 were held in Poznan, Poland. Countries began negotiations on the financing mechanism to help poor countries adopt to the effects of climate change.

2009       - COP 15 was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. It failed to reach agreement on binding commitments after the Kyoto Protocol Commitment period ends in 2012.

2010       - The 16th Conference of the parties results in the agreements, comprehensive package by governments to assist developing nations in dealing with climate change. Parties also agreed for curbing global warming within 2 degree centigrade.

2011       - November to December – COP 17 was held in Durban South Africa. Parties agreed to the Durban platform for Enhanced action which framework to establish a new international emission reduction protocol.

2012       - COP 18 was held in Doha, Quarter. Parties agreed to extend the expiring Kyoto Protocol, creating a second commitment phase that would begin on January 1, 2013 and end December 31, 2020.

2013       - COP 19 was held in Warsaw Poland. Parties were expected to create a road map for the 2015 COP in Paris where a legally binding treaty to reduce GHGs emissions is expected to be finalized (in order to come into effect in 2020).

2014       - COP 20 was held in Lina, Peru in December 2014.

2015       - Parties meet from November 28 to December 12 and agreed to avoid temperature rise beyond 2 degree centigrade.

2016       - COP 22/ the Conference of Parties serving as meeting of Parties of Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12 and the 1st session of Conference of the Parties to Paris Agreement (CMAI) were held in Bab Ighli, Marrokech, Morocco from 7 – 18 November 2016.

The Conference successfully demonstrated to the world that the implementation of the Paris Agreement is underway and the constructive spirit of multilateral co-operation on climate change continues.


2017       - The 23rd session of the Conferences of Parties (COP 23) to the UN Convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be organized by Fiji and hosted at the headquarters of the UNFCCC Secretariat in Bann, Germany in 6-17 November 2017.

Institute of Forestry (IOF), TU

The Institute of Forestry (IOF) is the first and only institute in Nepal fully committed to education and training in Forestry and Natural Resource Management. It was established as Nepal Forestry Institute in 1947 under the Nepal Government, Department of Forests at Singh Durbar in Kathmandu. It was moved to Supping (Bhim Phedi) in 1957 and then to Hetauda in 1965 in better physical facilities constructed by the Indian Co-operation Mission (ICM). The Institute merged into Tribhuvan University in July 1972 under the name “Institute of Forestry” and developed the infrastructure for Dean’s Office and Pokhara Campus in Pokhara, Kaski, with technical and financial assistance from the World Bank, International Development Agency (IDA) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

IOF Dean Office, Pokhara


The Institute offered only a two-year Certificate Level course in Forestry at Hetauda until 1981. Thereafter, in order to meet the demand for trained natural resource managers in Nepal, it launched two academic programs at newly established Pokhara Campus in 1981: a two-year Technical Certificate in Forestry (TCF), which is now phased out, and a threeyear Bachelor of Science in Forestry (B.Sc. F.), which evolved into a four-year program in 1995. The IOF started offering Master of Science and Ph.D. programs in Forestry in 2004. Currently, it offers Master of Science in Forestry, Master of Science in Natural Resource Management and Rural Development, and Master of Science in Watershed Management. The Doctoral program of the IOF is research based and is open for all those interested in any field related to Forestry.

The IOF offers courses pertinent to various disciplines of NRM and modifies its curricula as time necessitates. The current curriculum entails basic science and forestry courses with emphasis on Forest Management, Community Forestry, Agroforestry, Eco-tourism, Park and Recreation Management, Environmental Science, Wildlife, Protected Area Management, Soil Conservation & Watershed Management, etc. Teaching and Research at the IOF preserve and enrich creative traditions through well designed educational programs. These programs address the current forestry related needs and interests of civil society in Nepal. The distinguished history of access and quality of the IOF continues today, providing graduate and undergraduate students with infinite opportunities to make a difference.

#Source: iof.edu.np

B.Sc Forestry Programme conducted under new syllabus 2071.
No. of Subject studies: (8 + 9) + (8 + 8) +
Total Credit Hours: (17+ 20) + (20 + 20) + 



17 Global Goals for Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development Goals are the set of 17 Global goals, lead by United Nation through a deliberative process involving its 193 Member States. It is officially known as Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The SDGs build on the Principles agreed upon under Resolution which is popularly known as The Future We Want. Here are the basic Goals we should focus for our better future. Remember the quoted assertion by Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Secretary-General (2007 - 2016). "We don’t have plan B because there is no planet B".

On 25 September 2015, the 194 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Official Agenda for Sustainable adopted on 25 September 2015 has 92 paragraphs. Paragraph 51 outlines the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the associated 169 targets.
Humankind faces many challenges, to ensure that all people have the same development and well-being opportunities. In the year 2000 the United Nations adopted eight objectives to meet the main needs of the poorest. 15 years later 193 countries adopted the 2030 agenda that sets out the sustainable development goals, a new horizon with the most pressing challenges for human beings, in the coming years. These are 17 ambitious goals that require the collaboration of civil society and the public and private sectors whose success means a more egalitarian and livable world. The eradication of poverty and hunger so as to ensure a healthy life. Achieve universal access to basic services such as water sanitation and sustainable energy. Support the generation of development opportunities through inclusive education and decent work. Foster innovation resilient infrastructures by creating communities and cities capable of producing and consuming in a sustainable way. Reduce inequalities in the world, especially gender inequalities. Caring for the environment by combating climate change and protecting oceans and terrestrial ecosystems. Promote collaboration between different social actors to create an environment of peace and sustainable development. If we achieve the sustainable development goals among people governments and companies we will make the world a more prosperous place for all.



The 17 Global Goals are listed below, together with a key point.
  1. No Poverty
    End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  2. Zero Hunger
    End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
  3. Good Health and Well-being
    Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
  4. Quality Education
    Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
  5. Gender Equality
    Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
  6. Clean Water and Sanitation
    Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
  7. Affordable and Clean Energy
    Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
  8. Decent Work and Economic Growth
    Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
  9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
  10. Reduced Inequalities
    Reduce income inequality within and among countries
  11. Sustainable Cities and Communities
    Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
  12. Responsible Consumption and Production
    Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  13. Climate Action
    Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy
  14. Life Below Water
    Conserve and sustainable use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
  15. Life on Land
    Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
  16. Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
    Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels 
  17. Partnerships for the Goals
    Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
United Nation has listed all those lists and we the people should works on it to achieve all these goals. Here I will mention some of the steps to follow so that we could achieve all these goals.

Share and inform other about Global Goals

The first thing we could do is to learn and understand what these global goals are and we need to share to our friends and family about this. Knowing the goals makes us focus on the specific task we should focus. Lets first understand about sustainable development:-
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:
  • the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
  • the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."
To understand about more about these global goals you can go through this link UNDP Sustainable Development Goals Here you will find about the activities by UN for achieving these goals and a lot more information. www.globalgoals.org Watch this video:-



Invest your time and skills

To achieve what we want we should invest our money and time in it. Invest you money and time in those projects or task or whatever that helps on achieving any one of these goals. If you are working in some projects make sure that it would try to solve any of these global goals. Invest your skill on making this world a better place. You can volunteer in social works, share the ideas and need of these global goals. Awareness program about environmental pollution, Global warming and the climate change. Everything in the world is interlinked. Any profession needs all other peoples form different skills to make get success oh his/her work. Make sure your upcoming project is to focus these global goal or try at least to solve a problem.

Collaboration and Competition

What would be better, work done by a person or a work done by the group of person who believe in the same thing? Obviously collaborative works are the must successive works. Competition will give you the energy to win other team, which leads both the team to get success on. Collaborating in terms of moving forward towards the same goal. Competition among all to develop and implement the most effective and fastest way to reach there.

Basic Actions

We can change the way we live. There is nothing so called Large or huge impact. Every single small impacts are the cause of those huge things. So never to think like "its not gonna change with me individual" or "my small thing is nothing" Here are some actions we can all take: - Quora.com
  • Be a Vegan.
  • Have no more than 2 children.
  • Walk or Ride a bicycle or use a mass transit service when you can.
  • Support a charity.
  • Pay more for ethical / environment friendly clothes and products.
  • Learn to wash clothes in cool settings.
  • Use less paper.
  • Support and contribute to animal conservation.
  • Re-cycle your recyclable waste.
  • Support other conservation and poverty alleviation efforts.
  • Pay your taxes.
  • Invest in a ethical company
  • Conserve electricity.
  • Waste less food.
  • Support innovation that helps us use less of everything.
  • Grow some trees.
हामिले नगरे कस्ले गर्ने, अहिले नगरे कहिले गर्ने। We don’t have plan B because there is no planet B 

Avoid Stress

Does anyone like to be in stress? How often you get stress? How can we come across stress?

Before knowing the answers for above questions we need to be familier with the term "stress".

What exactly the term "stress" means?
In simple and in general it is unusual state of mind when human mind can't function rationally due to overload of various works. Some sorts of stress for short periods of time may be beneficial as much more works is done in a short period of time which is some how productive.

But, continuous stress on human mind can't tolerate. It would be fatal if an individual don't get concious about its impacts on human health. It is a world wide problem arising in human society in a rapid way. Peoples life is no more secure due to increasing competition. Even it is difficult to fulfill basic need and other addtional needs are far more expensive which are difficult to achieve without a hard work. For that people don't give much priorities to their health then the complition of work.

The modern society or the civilization has contributed a lot more to these in this modern era. Now, for helthy life we need to understand the way how can to reduces the reasons of stress. Here are some ways that I would tries to explain briefly.

They are listed as:

1. Time factor: The person who is faithful to the time then he wouldhave reasons to regreat because of time. One should well utilize their time in productive work so that it would helpful to achive the goals anyone like to achieve. If anyone loss his time it's like he has loss almost everything. That doesn't mean you have to again worry about your missing times. No that's not here I mean forget how you behaves in your past and how you would do in future. Here the important things is to focus on work we do in our current time. That helps to avoid stress related to our bright and successful future in near future.

2. Relation factors: Most of our natural relation which are formed with our birth are no need to worry about. But the relation you have made with some one any one else and regards them as a close one creates a person a full of stress if he don't get them as he thought. Much relay on anyone other creates an stress when you expect much more from them then they can provide. One should understand that you yourself is not same as your parents thinks and want to be like. Also you are not like the one your friends wants. So relying on someone before understanding well creates a huge problems leads to stress.


3. Responsibilitie factor: If you are taking more responsible then there might be the reason for the stress in your mind when you can't overcome that condition in a easy way. When your way of doing is not favorable for the condition then there is always lots of chances that type of man get stress more. Thus, to get rid of it make yourself confident on the task otherwise get away from that before you loose your control over it. Take help from other that is the best idea instead of wasting yourself in vein.

Any Idea? No Idea.

We have to face a situation when people hopes you more than you are capable or willling to do something work done. You are forced to do or react though you are unaware of the material on which you are in talk. You may have enter the circumstances by anyway.

But you like to change this all but don't get anyway to get out of it. When you don't have any idea to get out of it you would get stucked within for remaining time of your life.

This sorts of problems and trobles are seen in most of the people. This problem don't lead an individual to get success in any field as he don't get concentrated in any work. Your mind becomes blank and dull so acts in a slow way. We live in the way we used to be but difficult to change but you need to make sure something positive need to be changed. Changing might not comfort the mind. Its like our mind get jammed.

Sometimes an easy task might be the most difficult for any body else which creates frustation on us. This type of situation might experience by many of us. It's hard to get out of mind and think some new innovative ideasand to get back into the mind is really the most difficult action that we need to perform that what we felt but actually it's the easiest. We live in that environment which don't let us to think freely and open mindly. So, I can say many of us go through this problems actually. Most of people came across the same troblems.

Now, we need to focus on "Why" we need to get out of box that don't let our mind get out of to think a new ideas. We felt somehow safer to stay as it is then to take a step ahead that might be diffierent environment which might not be suitable for us to live in the same way as it is. Is it necessary to have an idea 

Rainfall reminds you!

It's raining all day. It's cold as temperatures lowers after rain. And I am here alone.

Rains keep raining. You keep on running in my mind.

Rains reminds you always. It's like you are rain and rain is you.

Though you are not in close with me now but I felt you are near looking at me from somewhere else.

I have not forget that day which still fresh in my mind.

That rainy day,  I remember as it was. The memory is still fresh.

I found you loves rain then till that day I begin to enjoy the rain even more.

It is always the amazing time to be with you. But that day meant more for me than as usual.

When you step down from the bus and directed towards me with a wide smile and brigher face that makes me felt I am only the luckiest guy to have a friend like you.

Wind was blowing gently and dust and dirt were flying it was going to rain sooner. We are moving ahead along the disty and crowded and noisy road but experience the most peaceful and calm because of you.

You really have a magic at least for me if rest of the world don't belive.

Till the day I met you I have always a brillant time. I never have to be sad any more. You brings a happiness in my life. Till I remain in your range of contact or inflluence I will always have my every action done very well. You are the source of inspiration from me. I always tries my best to becomes a good and honest gentleman.

Hardly we can manage some time in a long interval that also last only for a short movement which are some basis for keeping us together.

That day meeting also held after long but it's really amazing though rain tries to interference the movement.

But it went quiet in favour of us or better say to me. It's amazing to me to have an opportunities to use a single umbrella with the most pretty lady in the world I ever seen.

The rainfall helps us to bring us sufficiently close to each other. The interval when we are in touch remain fresh and unforgetable.

After some time of walking along the road the rain somehow claming and it's been time to departe each other but that feelings makes me felt she still in my left side.

Rain keeps us more closer as every time it rains as I thought the very time you are in my side.

Rainfall reminds you to me what reminds me to you pretty!

Foreign Dream

What you are dreaming to do when you complete your +2 or bachelor degree?

If I was correct most of you are dreaming to go abroad in foreign country for better study plus job oppurtunities. Most of people especially youth are foreign dreamer.

When the same question is asked among students  many of them come answer with they would go to abroad for higher education or for job opportunities. These all people's ideology is mostly found in the citizen's of developing nations.

This modern Era of 21st century has made all the people a global citizen and a young energetic youth from a developing country don't like to confirm within country where they are not well able to get opportunity to learn in detail on subject matter they are interested or don't get a field to show up their talent then Foreign contry means the developed country moves around their mind and think they would so better if they can reached to those country in their reapective field of interest.
There might be various reasons for people dreaming towards the foreign nations.  Here, I tried to clearify some of the reasons among them. 

Firstly, Attraction may be the first reason and also a important reasons behinds the foreign dream of the people. Foreign countries especially developed countries like U.S.A., Canada, Japan, Korea, Australia, various European countries, middle east Asia countries are under the selection of most of people. These countries are able to attrack large no. of people towards them as they provides the various oppurtunity of jobs, quality education, provieds modern facilities and services. In search of luxurious life and to life a pleasure life people's like to enter those countries. Developed countries are like Dream lands to most of people of developing and least developed nation. These lands provides necessity of different people and also fulfill the desires of different kinds of people. So, these have been the spot of attraction for foreign dreamers.

Many people are willing to have a good income to support their family whereas developed nation are paying good sums of money to the workers from outside their contry. The developed nations demands the workers from the developing country and most of the people of the developing are eager to join in the project or development activities in developed country to have good sums of return as wages. The income is regarded as good income in comparision to the income within the nation. Since the unemployment is also to high in developing and especially in least developed countries they always have foreign dream as an alternatives. It is also dreams as their is no any other best alternatives to have better income and to uplift their family economic condition.


The no. of student going abroad in foreign nation is increasing these days as the foreign degree is regarded as the high standard degree and world wide accepted degree. The oppurtunities seeking groups of students are travelling foreign nation and most have grown foreign dream in their mind to have a qualitative education. To have a foreign degree is regarded as to unlock opportunities all ovet the world or to unlock opportunities to have a work all around the world. 

The skilled manpower produced by a least developed and developing nation mostly migrate to foreign nation as they are provided with better income oppurtunities and facilities than in their native countries. Many developed contries try to kept all the skilled manpower with in their nation they also tries to faciliates the skilled and technical manpower from other nation so that their country get more benifities from their works as well. If people reached to developed country and learn more and sharpen the skills would get back to their under developed county then that actually is more profitable to that nation when skillls they earned is well utilized in the progress of nation. 

What ever the dreams you have after the complition of it you anyone from less developed nation who has gone to developed nation should return to their own nation instead of staying their permanently because that nation has mande you and you should be responsible to make that nation. 

Dedicated to people who are in foreign land and who are willing to go once.

Wish your foreign dreams turns into Reality if you have.

Any feedback comment below. 

Happy Life Formula

Life is happy if you take it as a matter of happiness and it become worst if you take it as a matter of trouble. Many people are not happy in this world because they only observed troubles or obstracles which may occurs due to various reasons.

People have a misconcept that once a person sinks in the pond of sorrow they don't think life can be turn into happy state again.

Those who thought they are all bounded by trobles and it is impossible to turn their life again into state of pleasure or happy state are the wrong people as you can made the life much better and happier than before.

I will try to share some of the tips in this article as far I know which might be helpful to you to turns your boring days towards the happy days and eventually your life into more pleasant and joyful life.

Happiness is the state of mind. If your mind is in the state of pleasure then you can felt a pleasant life.

So, you need to keep your mind in state of happiness.

What  should you do to keep your mind in state of happiness?
There are some ways through which it is helpful to fix to your state of mind to keep it in state of happiness.

Here, are some which will be explained.

1) Be in state of calmness:

If you are restless and your mind loaded with various problems associated with your work or with the circumstances you live in then the first thing you have to do is try to remain in the calm area away from these all if possible for short time around half hours daily or a day in a week out of these all unpleasnt circumstances and situation.

Make your mind fresh or try to keep it cool in state take fresh water time to time to keep you fresh. Smile to everyone.

Don't let your mind to think negative to anyone else. You have to respect the success of people around you. Competition is on yourself if you win youself each day after day you would finally reached to destination instead of focusing to down others.

Make a habit of taking fresh clean drinking every morning and before bed and 3/4 times during day time. Sufficient water makes your brain fuctioning well and help you thinks rationaly.

2) Make sure your aim:

Do work as per your interest. Don't follow other the way they move may be perfect to them but not to you. Make your own way to move ahead so that you don't need to worry on your work you have completed.

Your every action should be directed towards your aims. Each of your action should contribute for achieving although that may be small but the change should be positive and inspiring to move ahead.
Spending times on other activities might loss your time and wealth which would be difficult to overcome it.

If it is already late to get into a track it is better to decide to take a right path as it is better to do late than doing never.

Always keeps the things that inspired you to move on towards your aim in a place you regularly can observed so that it help you to recall your dream. And it is also better to share your good friends about your doing and your progress as well that would help you to get some feedback that would helpful to carry out that action in a different and easier way.

3) Make yourself a determinant Person:

Don't get distract by other people, while moving ahead. There are many distraction comes in life in different forms which you have to recognize before it harm to us on moving ahead,

You may get good oppurtunity which seems more profitable and availble easily without hard labour so you may miss your tract and loss your dreams.

Happiness is not lies in achieving something, it is when travelling with struggle to get some mission accomplished.

The life time is sufficient for achieving any goal if you focused in towards the goal and work accordingly otherwise the life time is too short even to achieve a small goal.

4) Happy with success of Other:

If you happy in other success than you would get good support from them. It is like Tit for Tat.
People won't support you or celebrates your success if you ignore theirs.

Whatever you do should based on win win thereom i.e. all people around you as well as you will get success so that type of success is sustainable and long term profitable.

If you don't like the success done by other than you only involve in making the person down, your movement towards mission would retarded or stop moving forward instead it retard from your initial position.

The compitition is with in you keep on compititing within yourself. The main reason of unhappiness is comparing personal progress with other infact which is incompariable.

The day when you left to be unpleasant on other people progress then your life you get happy in reality.

We have many things to keeps us happy but we always thinks about what we don't have. For example you have 99 things you have to keep you happy but you get sad and become unhappy in absent of one things. You may have everthing for day to day life but may not have a car and you are sad for that, you may not have a motorcycle(bike), a good friend, or anything else. Forget what you don't have it would be with you when the time turns in favour of you. Be happy there are many reason you can be happy. You have eye to see, hand to do works, family to share problems, friends helps in trouble, etc.

Act positivly.

Be positive.

New Year 2074 B.S.

The New Year 2074 B.S. is being celebrated all over Nepal, India and people of Nepal all over the world as it is nationally used Era. It is called a Vikram Samvat. In short V.S. or B.S.

Vikram Samvat was started in 58/57 B.C. which is also known for Hindhu Calender. The Era was named after the King Vikramaditya.

Vikram samvat is 56.7 years faster then the Gregorian Calender. This Year 2074 B.S. starts in 2017 A.D. and ends in 2018 A.D. The year in Vikram Samvat starts in around mid of April of current running year of Gregorian Calender and ends in around mid of April of next year of Gregorian Calender.

The First Month of Vikram Samvat is Called Baisakh (Vaisakh). Then, Jestha, Ashard, Shrawan, Bhadra, Ashwin, Kartik, Mangsir, Poush, Magh, Falguan and Chaitra are the month preceeding onwards.

The first day of the Year that is 1st of Baisakh is celebrated with joy. In Bhaktapur it is celebrated with conducting Bisket Jatra.

In Nepal, Rana Rulers made Vikram Samvat as their official calender.

Classical Vikram Samvat uses a lunar months and solar sideral year. As 12 lunar month does not matches with solar sideral year so, some correctional month is added or subtracted occasionally.

In addition to the day of months it also includes the lunar day (thithi) in the calender based on the position of moon with respect to sun. The lunar day may start and end in different part of the day. There are 15 lunar days before full moon and 15 lunar days before new moon. The length of lunar day may varies from 19 hours to 26 hours.