History of Climate Change Negotiations

The most of the important event occurred in the course of negotiation on Climate Change are mention below:

1972       - United Nations Conference on Human Environment in stockholon i.e. 1st UN Environment Conference (UNEP). The United Environment Programme is formed as a result here.

1975       - First talk of Global Warming: US scientist Wallace  Broceker put the term "Global Warming" into the public domain in his scientific paper climate change.

1979       - 1st World Climate Conference (WCC) takes place.

1988       - World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and UN Environment Programme (UNEP) establish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

1990       - The IPCC release the 1st assessment report saying "emissions resulting from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases leading to calls by IPCC and the second World Climate Conference for a global treaty.
It has concluded that temperature have risen by 0.3 – 0.6 Degree Centigrade over the last century because of human activity.

Dec 11, 1999- The UN General Assembly establishes the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) for Framework Convention on Climate Change.

1992       - Rio de Earth Summit in Brazil.
The text of the UNFCCC is adopted at the United Nation Headquarters in New York.

Jan 1992- UNFCCC open for signature at Rio Earth Summit. It was major United Nations Conference held in Rio de Janerio from 3 to 14 June 1992.
Agreement between Parties for curbing global warming within 2 degree centigrade


1994       - The UNFCCC spawned two years earlier in Rio, enters into force in March 1994. Countries which sign the treaty are known as  Parties. With 196 parties, the UNFCCC has near universal membership. Parties meet annually at the Conference of the Parties (COP) to negotiate multilateral response to climate change.

1995       - First Conference of Parties (COP 1) had in Berlin Germany. At COP 1 Parties agreed that commitments in the convention were inadequate for meeting Convention objectives.
- IPCC release second assessment report and suggest evidence of "discernible human influence" on the earth's climate.

1996       - In July 1996 Conference of Parties II was held in Geneva. UNFCCC Secretariat is setup to support action under the convention.

1997       - December 1947, Kyoto Protocol Adapted. The third Conference of Parties (COP 3) achieves a historical milestone with adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, the world first greenhouse gas emissions reduction treaty. The world main goal of the Kyoto Protocol is to control the emissions of the human emitted GHGs in ways that reflects underlying national differences in GHGs emissions wealth and capacity to make the reductions. The treaty follows the main principles common but differentiated responsibilities.

1998       - COP 4 was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parties adopted the Buenos Aires plan of Action allowing a two year period to develop mechanisms for implementing the Kyoto protocol.

1999       - COP 5 was held in Bann, Germany. According to the UNFCCC, Parties continued                             negotiation efforts with a focus on the adoption of the guidelines for the preparation of                         national communication by (developed) countries capacity building, transfer of technology                 and flexible mechanism.

2000       - COP 6 – Part I was held in Hague, Netherland negotiations faltered and parties agreed to meet again.

COP 6 – Part II was held in Bann, Germany. Consensus was reached on what called the Bann Agreement.

2001       - COP 7 was held in Marrakesh Noroco. This would formalize agreement on operational                     rules for International Emissions Trading. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and                 Joint Implementation along with a compliance regime and accounting procedures.

2001       - COP 8 was held in Delhi, India. Parties adopted the Delhi Ministerial Declaration that among other things called for developed countries to transfer technology to developing counties.

2003       - COP 9 was held in Milan, Italy. New emission reporting guidelines based on IPCC recommendations were adopted.

2004       - COP 10 was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

2005       - Kyoto Protocol came in force. COP 11/CMP 1 were held in Montreal Canada.

2006       - COP 12/CMP 2 were held in Nairobi, Kenya. Financial mechanisms were reviewed and further decisions were made about the special climate change fund. Clean Development Mechanism opens in January 2006.

2007       - COP 13/CMP 3 were held in Bali, COP parties agreed to a Bali action plan to negotiate GHGs mitigation actions after the Kyoto protocol expires in 2012.

2008       - COP 14/CMP 4 were held in Poznan, Poland. Countries began negotiations on the financing mechanism to help poor countries adopt to the effects of climate change.

2009       - COP 15 was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. It failed to reach agreement on binding commitments after the Kyoto Protocol Commitment period ends in 2012.

2010       - The 16th Conference of the parties results in the agreements, comprehensive package by governments to assist developing nations in dealing with climate change. Parties also agreed for curbing global warming within 2 degree centigrade.

2011       - November to December – COP 17 was held in Durban South Africa. Parties agreed to the Durban platform for Enhanced action which framework to establish a new international emission reduction protocol.

2012       - COP 18 was held in Doha, Quarter. Parties agreed to extend the expiring Kyoto Protocol, creating a second commitment phase that would begin on January 1, 2013 and end December 31, 2020.

2013       - COP 19 was held in Warsaw Poland. Parties were expected to create a road map for the 2015 COP in Paris where a legally binding treaty to reduce GHGs emissions is expected to be finalized (in order to come into effect in 2020).

2014       - COP 20 was held in Lina, Peru in December 2014.

2015       - Parties meet from November 28 to December 12 and agreed to avoid temperature rise beyond 2 degree centigrade.

2016       - COP 22/ the Conference of Parties serving as meeting of Parties of Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12 and the 1st session of Conference of the Parties to Paris Agreement (CMAI) were held in Bab Ighli, Marrokech, Morocco from 7 – 18 November 2016.

The Conference successfully demonstrated to the world that the implementation of the Paris Agreement is underway and the constructive spirit of multilateral co-operation on climate change continues.


2017       - The 23rd session of the Conferences of Parties (COP 23) to the UN Convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be organized by Fiji and hosted at the headquarters of the UNFCCC Secretariat in Bann, Germany in 6-17 November 2017.

Hi everyone, I am Amrit Devkota. Studying B.Sc. Forestry at IOF, Pokhara Campus. Complete +2 from SOS Hermann Gmeiner Higher Secondary School. I am interested in writing and helping other people through writing. I love natural monuments. Promise to conserve them. I believe in Truth and Hard Working. Simple Living High Thinking.

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